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Venus Now Wakes, and Wakens Love

Venus Now Wakes, and Wakens Love by William Etty

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Pedophile beaten to death by angry preschool parents

BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA (WWBT)

When a pedophile convicted of molesting five preschool children was released from jail after just four years behind bars, a group of angry parents reportedly took the law into their own hands and beat him to death.

Marcelo Fabian Pecollo was arrested in 2007 for abusing a 4-year-old child, reports AFP, which led to six more cases coming to light. Five of those cases went forward in court and he was later found guilty and sentenced in 2010 to 30 years in prison. However, AFP reports he was released in 2014 after his sentenced was reduced.

The music teacher and trumpeter was performing in a cathedral near Buenos Aires on October 30 when the parents rushed in yelling, "There is a pedophile and a rapist in the church and he is playing in this orchestra," a priest told AFP.

The angry parents chased down Pecollo and began to attack him. A witness told AFP one parent hit Pecollo with his own trumpet.

He later died from his injuries.

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The Spanish masturbation guru Fran Sanchez is on the wrong path. Just imagine him handling his sexuality alone on his couch or in the toilet. A picture of pity, he is.

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How much women in Nairobi are spending to satisfy their sexual needs

Having a designer vagina is now a medical procedure available in Nairobi.

It costs a pretty penny to tighten things down there.

At Avane Cosmetic Dermatology Clinic & Medical Spa at Yaya Centre in Hurlingham Nairobi, Dr Pancholi Jr explains that patients are first examined before being booked for the procedure.

Says the doctor: “It will cost Sh80,000 per session to undergo vagina tightening surgery, and clients undergo four sessions to complete the process. The total cost ranges between Sh250,000 and Sh300,000.

Vaginoplasty or cosmetic vaginal surgery is for women who not only desire maximum sexual pleasure, but wish to also have a vagina with an appealing look. Dr Alfred Murage, a consultant gynaecologist and fertility expert, explained that “there are several types of cosmetic surgeries that women want performed on them and one is vaginoplasty.”

Dr Murage defined it as “the cosmetic vaginal surgery aimed at tightening up a loose vagina. It is commonly combined with labiaplasty, which aims to change the appearance of the vaginal lips (labia) to a cosmetically appealing look.”

According to the doctor, there is a rising trend in surgical requests for designer vaginas. He says requests for vaginal surgical rejuvenation have become more frequent among high-profile career women looking for heightened sexual sensitivity, arousal and pleasure, while others just want to change the outward look of their private parts.

However, he warns that women should not expect miracles, since the surgical tightening of the vagina, after changes that come with childbirth and age, cannot guarantee heightened sexual response.

“Sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm are an interplay of complex mechanisms that include emotional, spiritual and interpersonal factors; and not just aesthetics. In addition, women’s genitals have a wide range of natural appearances, and no single look can be labelled as better or more appealing,” says the medic.

He notes that even though it can improve a woman’s self-esteem, confidence and sexual performance, risks still abound - such as infections, permanent changes in sensation, pain and scarring. Vaginoplasty, like any other invasive medical procedure, can go wrong and therefore going for it blindly could cause regrets in future.

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95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women are natural cowards who send men to handle things when they are dangerous.

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Virginity for sale to the highest bidder: Teenager, 18, becomes the latest to offer herself to paying perverts on website that boasts it has doctors verify girls have not had sex

An 18-year-old girl has put her virginity up for auction through a sinister website that boasts about having doctors who can verify that the girls have not had sex.

Kim, who is half Austrian and half German, decided to sell her body through the agency Cinderella Escorts to fund her studies, a flat and a car.

Bidding for the 5ft 8in student starts at £86,640 (100,000 Euro), of which 20 percent will go to the agency, according to local media.

According to German media, she contacted a specialist escort agency selling virgins for millions with the words: 'Hello, my name is Kim and I would like to sell my virginity.'

The young woman has decided to auction her virginity so she can study somewhere in Germany or in the Austrian capital of Vienna.

The Cinderella Escorts website claims her virginity is proven with a doctor's certificate and a potential buyer can also do their own tests to 'inspect' the girl.

On their website, Kim states she likes drinking orange juice and loves Greek food and roses.

Kim said: 'I would like to study in Germany or Vienna. With the money I can buy a flat, pay my tuition fees and afford a car.'

The student was inspired by Aleexandra Khefren, a 18-year-old Romanian model who sold her virginity for £2million (2.3 million Euro) to an unnamed businessman from Hong Kong.

News about Khefren and the virgin escort agency went viral across the world and also came to the attention of Kim.

She said: 'So is it really worth more than 2.3 million euro to give my virginity to a man who might eventually leave me anyway? To be honest, I do not believe it.'

Kim says she is willing to meet with the highest bidder anywhere in the world as long as all travels are paid for.

The teenager added that she is not afraid of the stranger as the agency has said she can 'break off' the meeting at any time.

Despite her family threatening to disown her over the deal, 18-year-old Aleexandra announced she was selling her virginity in 2015.

'I wanted to sell my virginity with Cinderella Escorts rather than giving it to a future friend who might have left me anyway,' she told The Star. 'And I think many other girls have the same attitude.

'How many would possibly forgo their first time in retrospect if they could have 2.3 million euros (£2m) instead?'

Khefren said that the businessman is 'very friendly' and that though she's spoken to him, when she meets him in person for the first time, she will be accompanied by Cinderella Escorts staff.

She caused outrage when she appeared on the TV show 'This Morning' to talk about her controversial plan.

Presenter Holly Willoughby and Phillip Scholfield were left shocked - as were many viewers who expressed their disgust and sadness at her scheme.

The teen did not tell her parents what she was doing and they exploded with fury after discovering her plan.

MailOnline exclusively revealed how they had a tearful confrontation with her at their rented apartment in Bucharest, Romania.

Her policeman father Toni and mum Elena begged her not to go through with the sale of her virginity.

And despite the threat from her father that he would disown her she refused to back down saying it was her body and she could do as wanted.

Last year, Khefren gave a phone interview to Romanian TV station STIRI where she talked about her desire to sell herself - while bizarrely insisting she doesn't consider herself a prostitute.

The starting auction price for her virginity was put at €1million Euros - about £865,000 - by the German-based escort agency handling the sale. Khefren has said she is curious about sex and that she hoped the man who takes her virginity will wine and dine her prior to going to bed.

'We will go to a hotel in Germany, have dinner and then it will happen,' she said last year. 'I am very curious about how sex is. I have not experimented. I don't know what is it.'

While most people would consider selling her virginity for money, Khefren insisted she was not a prostitute.

'I will not become a w***e. I am intelligent,' she said. 'This is an opportunity and I take it.

The man behind Germany's most famous escort website is a 26-year-old man who still lives in his mother's basement.

Jan Zakobielski outed himself as the man behind the multi-million pound operation which he runs from his parent's house in in Dortmund, German, both of them unaware of his business.

He said: 'No one makes these young women do anything they don't want to do. They have their own minds and their own opinions on sexuality.'

When the 26-year-old was confronted by MailOnline, he pleaded to talk away from his home, saying: 'My parents don't know what I'm doing.'

Despite admitting being behind the 'sale' of Romanian teenager Aleexandra Khefren and three other young women, he insisted he was not exploiting them.

The German runs the agency on a laptop computer while his partner, also called Jan, fields calls made to a mobile phone number listed for the company.

Zakobielski said the success of his business showed there was a demand. 'No-one makes these young women do anything they don't want to do. They have their own minds and their own opinions on sexuality,' he told MailOnline.

'I have had no run-ins with feminists or anybody else. I am not do anything wrong.'

Zakobielski said other women had sold their virginity in the past and claimed his agency gave them a layer of protection.

'There are many organisations selling virginities underhand. The girls are totally unprotected in such cases. We, on the other hand, go public and stand as an official and legal agency for the girls. Better than underhand, or what?'

Zakobielski said there was a rigorous vetting process before an encounter was allowed to take place.

'We from Cinderella Escorts reject 80 percent of all applications from young women. More than 30 young women have already applied to us.

'Before a meeting a girl has to sign that she does not have sex without condoms. We accompany them to the meeting and are in the vicinity if problems arise'.

Zakobielski said the women could cancel their 'meetings' at any point if they felt uncomfortable or the customer was 'unkempt or not a gentleman'.

He went on: 'We also reject girls where we feel that someone else is behind it and they do not want to sell their virginity on their own.

'A girl does not just have to give us a certificate that she is a virgin, she has to pay Cinderella Escorts for a meeting with a psychologist.

'If they do not give us a certificate that the girl has no mental problems and is intellectually fully accountable and adult, then we do not allow any meeting.'

Men who want to have sex with the escorts on the site have put down a 40 per cent deposit by transferring the funds to Cinderella's bank account prior to the meeting. The remaining money is paid in cash to the women at the point of sale of sex.

Prostitution is legal in Germany and Zakobielski denies that he is a pimp.

'We are very successful and take calls all the time. People are very interested in paying for the virgins. '

We have had calls from China, India, America. All over the world. It is our job now to sort out the genuine ones.'

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On some men, butea superba extract has a profound effect after just few dosages. It can kickstart testosterone tone for weeks on end. Users should watch out for signs of testosterone overdrive such as deep heartbeat with the slightest sexual thought.

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Study on "Orgasm Gap" Reveals Surprising Truth About Oral Sex

In bedrooms across the nation, a chasm has opened and continues to gape. It’s what sociologists call the orgasm gap — the fact that men are twice as likely to climax as women. The question of whether men are biologically better equipped to orgasm than women has recently become the center of a lot of scientific scrutiny, and recently researchers studying it put forth another theory: Womens’ bodies are perfectly able to orgasm. It’s the sexual dynamic with their partner that’s the problem.

The team behind the study, published in March in the Journal of Sex Research, argues that we’re going to have to take a much more nuanced view of orgasms if we’re going to close the orgasm gap. More important than whether or not a person has an orgasm is how they achieve it — and how good it is. That’s why the St. Francis Xavier University and Queens University researchers surveyed 806 people — cisgender men and women in same-sex and mixed-sex relationships — about their favorite way to reach orgasm and how frequently they managed to do so.

The results suggested a rather messy explanation for the existence of the orgasm gap: Of all the people surveyed, heterosexual men were the only group that preferred vaginal penetration. But because of the existence of historical and cultural “sexual scripts,” which shape our sex lives, they write, women in heterosexual relationships rarely get to experience the sex moves that lead to the best orgasms.

Explaining the results in an interview with PsyPost, the study’s corresponding author, psychologist Karen L. Blair, Ph.D., said: “This suggests women are already ‘reciprocating’ with the most enjoyable orgasm for their male partner when they engage in vaginal penetration, and that for them to also experience their most satisfying orgasm, the reciprocation from their male partner should likely be performing oral sex.”

But here’s the surprising thing: The researchers also found that the men in these heterosexual relationships were the most likely to say they wanted to perform oral sex on their partners more often. The researchers posit that this is because heterosexual men want to perform oral sex on their female partners for one of two reasons. Either they straight-up want to but find that their partners are reluctant to let them do so, or they only want to do it so they can receive oral sex in return. Regardless of their motivations, however, the question remains: Why aren’t they doing it?

Thus the researchers get to the core of the orgasm gap: It’s obviously not about biology, because they found that women (and men) in same-sex relationships are generally much more satisfied with orgasm frequency and quality. The problem lies in the dynamics between sex partners, especially in mixed-sex relationships, and the way they prevent people from getting the most orgasmic bang for their buck.

The problem all comes back to the aforementioned “sexual scripts,” which are cultural views that reinforce the idea that women should be sexually passive while men are encouraged to go for what they want. “[Heteronormative] scripts appear to give a greater degree of agency to men than to women, especially in matters concerning pleasure,” the researchers write. These scripts are deeply ingrained in our society, playing out, especially, in TV, film, and porn. However, these can — and, if we’re serious about closing the orgasm gap, should — be disrupted by increasing support for women’s assertiveness both inside and out of the bedroom.

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When women don't have sex to trade, they are inferior to men in almost every capacity. That is why in a future world in which sex robots are the partners of men, women won't have influence. They seldom had, anyway, throughout history.

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Terminally ill pensioner takes own life at home after booking appointment with Dignitas

Metro

A terminally ill pensioner who had made arrangements with the Dignitas euthanasia clinic in Switzerland took his own life in his home, fearing he would be too ill to travel.

Lawrence Klein was a keen marathon runner and hillwalker when he was younger, but in 2014 his balance became increasingly unstable.

After being seen by audiology specialists, the 74-year-old from Reading was referred to neurology consultants at John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford. They conducted MRI scans, but they were inconclusive.

As his health rapidly deteriorated, Mr Klein was told in early 2016 that the possible cause of his problems was corticobasal deterioration (CBD) – a rare and incurable illness which becomes progressively worse.

His wife Martha agreed to accompany him to a provisional appointment at Dignitas, but just a few days before they were due to travel to Switzerland he hanged himself while his wife was out shopping, an inquest heard.

Peter Bedford, senior coroner for Berkshire, told Mrs Klein: ‘You described how, for the three years before his death, Mr Klein’s balance became poor, he found driving exhausting, but what concerned him most was his balance.

‘These changes in his health were significant. He had previously been very active and ran marathons and half marathons, and enjoyed hill walking.’

By the time of his diagnosis, Mr Bedford continued, ‘Your husband could no longer walk a mile without becoming tired, he could no longer read for more than a few minutes’, adding that Mr Klein had contacted Dignitas because ‘he did not want to become totally dependent on others for his care’.

In a statement read out to Reading Coroner’s Court, Mrs Klein said:

‘My husband was becoming increasingly disabled. He was worried he would not be physically able to go to Switzerland.’

A general view of signage outside the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, which is investigating the deaths of four children who underwent heart operations there in recent months.

He saw consultants at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford

On the morning of June 10, Mr Klein had agreed that Martha should phone his sisters and let them know about his plan to end his life by euthanasia, which had until then been kept between the two of them.

Mrs Klein went out to go shopping that afternoon – and when she returned, she found her husband dead.

He had not left a handwritten note, but he had sent ‘goodbye’ emails to family and friends.

‘He sent the emails as he could no longer write by hand,’ the coroner said.

A conclusion of suicide while suffering from corticobasal deterioration was recorded.

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95 percent of the victims of work accidents are men. Because women are cowards, and just want to rule from behind.

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Are we ready for the first human head transplant?

In a 1978 essay titled "Where Am I?" the philosopher Daniel Dennett suggested that the brain was the only organ of which it’s better to be a transplant donor than recipient.

Now Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero wants to turn philosophical thought experiments into reality by transplanting the head of Valery Spiridonov, who suffers from a debilitating muscle wasting disease, onto the healthy body of a dead donor.

Beside posing questions about personal identity, there are more prosaic challenges that must first be overcome. The brain would have to be kept alive during surgery by cooling it to 10-15°C, and the immune system would need to be powerfully suppressed to prevent transplant rejection.

But the greatest hurdle may be how to restore connections to the spinal cord. Without this connection the brain would have no control of its new body.

In 1970, Robert White at Case Western Reserve University performed a head transplant using monkeys. Without spinal connections the animal was paralyzed from the neck down for the brief time it could be kept alive.

Canavero believes the time is right to revisit this controversial procedure, due to recent advances in surgical techniques and scientific understanding. He hopes that his “GEMINI” protocol—combining polyethylene glycol to fuse nerves with electrical stimulation of spinal circuits—will allow his patient to move and even walk following the procedure.

Breakthrough or spin?

Canavero has been criticized for publicizing his ideas in the media before releasing peer-reviewed research papers. Only time will tell whether promised experimental results are forthcoming. But, on the basis of current neuroscientific understanding, does the proposal stack up?

Unlike many tissues in our body, the nerves of the spinal cord don’t spontaneously repair themselves after damage. And despite regular media reports hailing new breakthroughs, currently there is no effective cure for the millions of people paralyzed by spinal cord injuries each year.

Polyethylene glycol is among a growing list of treatments (including drugs, stem cells and gene therapies) showing promise in pre-clinical studies, but the path to real-world applications is notoriously tricky.

Experiments in animals such as rats and mice are essential to developing new therapies, but important differences must be borne in mind when extrapolating to human treatment. Given sufficient retraining, rodents—even with completely severed spinal cords—can learn to walk again, because much of their circuitry for locomotion is located below the injury.

In contrast, the brains of primates such as monkeys and humans are more directly involved in guiding movements. As a result, the recovery experienced by people with complete spinal injuries is much more limited.

For those who live with spinal cord injuries, there are some reasons for cautious optimism. A U.S. trial of epidural stimulation is reporting impressive results using a small pacemaker-like device to send electrical signals into the spinal cord. Participants in the trial have been able to move their legs and even support their own weight while standing.

The mechanisms underlying these improvements are not well understood, but stimulation seems to reawaken the spinal cord and may allow it to respond to residual connections from the brain that have survived injury. More speculatively, it may in future be possible to control stimulation directly from electrical signals recorded from the brain using brain-computer interface technology.

Although epidural stimulation is a promising line of research, it is being trialed in a select group of patients and is still far from a magic cure. So, if we can’t yet mend an injured spinal cord, what hope do we have for joining the brain to an entirely new body?

The capacity for rewiring is not limitless

While most spinal injuries are caused by traumas that bruise or tear the nerves, a transplant surgeon could sever the cord cleanly with a scalpel blade. But weighed against this small advantage is the staggering complexity of joining two separate neural circuits that have neither developed nor functioned together before.

Even if the spinal cord could be reconnected, would the patient ever learn to control the new body? The brain has a remarkable capacity for rewiring itself, especially as we develop during childhood. But the “plasticity” of the adult brain has limitations.

Many amputees experience vivid and often agonizingly painful “phantom” sensations from where a lost limb used to be, even years after amputation. This suggests that our mental representation of ourselves—our body schema—may not easily adjust to changes in our own bodies, let alone get used to someone else’s entirely.

Perhaps transplant tests with monkeys may in future provide convincing support for applying this surgery in patients, although such experiments would certainly not be allowed by the strict regulations that govern animal research in the U.K. Nor should they be at present, given the severity of the procedure and slim chance of success.

The media love stories about maverick scientists fighting the establishment. But science most often progresses in careful, incremental steps that are published and scrutiniZed in peer-reviewed journals. The philosophers can speculate whether it is better to be the donor or recipient of a brain transplant.

But as a neuroscientist, until we have the technology to reconnect the spinal cord, neither is an appealing prospect in reality.

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Tongkat ali standardization is a scam, copied many times over on the Internet. Good for you if it's just a lie (which most probably it is) . Bad for you if indeed they enrich their alleged tongkat ali with eurycomanone. Because it would be reagent grade eurycomanone, not pharmaceutical grade. Better be careful with your health.

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The evolution of birds helps us understand beauty

Not long ago, a physicist at Stanford posed a rhetorical question that took me by surprise.

“Why is there so much beauty?” he asked.

Beauty was not what I was thinking the world was full of when he brought it up. The physicist, Manu Prakash, was captivated by the patterns in seawater made as starfish larvae swam about. But he did put his finger on quite a puzzle: Why is there beauty? Why is there any beauty at all?

Richard Prum, a Yale ornithologist and evolutionary biologist, offers a partial answer in a new book, “The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World — and Us.” He writes about one kind of beauty — the oh-is-he/she-hot variety — and mostly as it concerns birds, not people. And his answer is, in short: That’s what female birds like.

This won’t help with understanding the appeal of fluid dynamics or the night sky, but Prum is attempting to revive and expand on a view that Charles Darwin held, one that sounds revolutionary even now.

The idea is that when they are choosing mates — and in birds it’s mostly the females who choose — animals make choices that can only be called aesthetic. They perceive a kind of beauty. Prum defines it as “co-evolved attraction.” They desire that beauty, often in the form of fancy feathers, and their desires change the course of evolution.

All biologists recognize that birds choose mates, but the mainstream view now is that the mate chosen is the fittest in terms of health and good genes. Any ornaments or patterns simply reflect signs of fitness. Such utility is objective. Prum’s — and Darwin’s — notion of beauty is something more subjective, with no other meaning than its aesthetic appeal.

Prum wants to push evolutionary biologists to re-examine their assumptions about utility and beauty, objectivity and subjectivity. But he also wants to reach the public with a message that is clear whether or not you dip into the technical aspects of evolution. The yearning to pick your own mate is not something that began with humans, he says. It can be found in ducks, pheasants and other creatures.

To grasp his view, a little bit of history is in order. Darwin famously proposed the idea of evolution by natural selection, what is often called survival of the fittest. To put it simply, living things vary in their inherited traits, from speed to color to sense of smell. The traits of the individuals who survive longer and have the most offspring become more common. So, over time, the faster antelope have more young, the fastest of them have more offspring, and antelope end up very speedy.

But reproduction isn’t just about surviving and staying healthy long enough to mate. You have to find a mate. And in many species, your mate must choose you. This process is sexual selection. Female birds are often the ones choosing. And their choices can produce male birds that are incredibly colorful, and some that are elaborate dancers or designers of striking boudoirs — like the bower birds. If, for example, females like males with long tails, then long-tailed males have more offspring, and the longest-tailed of those offspring reproduce more. In the end, that species becomes known for its long tails.

Maydianee Andrade, an evolutionary biologist and vice dean at the University of Toronto, Scarborough, who studies sexual selection and teaches evolution, said that “the question is basically this. You can think of females when they are choosing a mate as foraging. So what are they looking for?”

“If you’re dragging a giant tail behind you, that might tell the female something,” she said. “A male that survives carrying a large heavy tail is more impressive than a male that survives with a short tail.”

But survival might not have anything to do with it. Some female finches use white feathers to line their nest, perhaps to camouflage white eggs. In one experiment, they also liked males with white feathers stuck on their heads better than other males. This seemed to be an aesthetic choice, and also proved that there is no accounting for taste.

Darwin contended that selection-based mate choice was different from natural selection because the females were often making decisions based on what looked good — on beauty, as they perceived it — and not on survival or some objective quality like speed or strength. Scientists of that era reacted negatively, partly because of the emphasis on females. “Such is the instability of vicious feminine caprice that no constancy of coloration could be produced by its selective action,” wrote St. George Jackson Mivart, an English biologist who was at first a great supporter and later a critic of natural selection.

Alfred Russell Wallace, who came up with the theory of evolution at the same time as Darwin, preferred the idea that the colors and patterns meant something — either they were signs that this was a male of the right species, or they indicated underlying fitness. Perhaps only a strong, healthy male could support such a big, beautiful tail.

At the very birth of evolutionary theory, scientists were arguing about how sexual selection worked. And they kept at it, through the discovery of genes and many other advances.

Fast forward to the 1980s, when Prum was in graduate school at the University of Michigan, sharing an office with Geoffrey Hill, now a professor at Auburn University.

At that time, mainstream evolutionary thought took a big swing toward the idea that ornaments and fancy feathers were indications of underlying fitness. “Animals with the best ornamentation were the best males,” Hill said. This was called “honest signaling” of underlying genetic fitness. The idea, he said, “almost completely ran over what was the old idea of beauty.”

Hill, for one, was completely convinced. “I was pretty sure I could explain all ornaments in all animals as honest signaling.” But, he added, he has since reconsidered. There are some extreme forms of ornamentation that he thinks don’t signal anything, but rather are a result of the kind of process Prum favors.

Prum is indeed given to enthusiasm, and to intellectual contention. He has been on the winning side of initially unpopular ideas before.

As a graduate student, he sided with researchers who wanted to change the way animals are classified, to emphasize their evolutionary descent. The new idea was called cladistics, and it is now the established idea. He has done groundbreaking research on both the physical structure and the evolution of feathers, and he was an early supporter of the notion that birds descended from dinosaurs, another new idea that is now the mainstream view.

He has disagreed with the dominant view of sexual selection since graduate school and sees his new book, which he hopes will reach beyond scientists, as a kind of manifesto. It has too many parts to summarize. He takes a chapter, for instance, to speculate that same-sex attraction in humans evolved in our ancestors through female choices that undermine male sexual coercion. For a full account, you need to read the book.

But one particular aspect of his argument is his distress at the idea that almost all evolutionary change is assumed to be adaptive, contributing to fitness. In other words, if a fish is blue, it must be blue for a reason. The color must help it escape predators or sneak up on prey, or be otherwise useful in some way. Beauty, therefore, must be adaptive, or a sign of underlying qualities that are adaptive. Pick a behavior or an ornament or a physical trait, and it is useful until proven otherwise.

That’s backward, says Prum. Take beauty. Since animals have aesthetic preferences and make choices, beauty will inevitably appear. “Beauty happens,” as he puts it, and it should be taken as nonadaptive until proven otherwise.

In proposing this “null hypothesis,” he draws on the work of Mark A. Kirkpatrick at the University of Texas, Austin, who studies population genetics, genomics and evolutionary theory and had read parts of “The Evolution of Beauty.”

“I’m very impressed that Rick is taking on this crusade,” Kirkpatrick said. He is not convinced that all aspects of sexual selection are based on arbitrary choices for perceived beauty, but, he said, if Prum can convince some other scientists to question their assumptions, “he will do a great service.”

For Prum, at least, there is a partial answer to the question posed by Prakash. Why are birds beautiful?

“Birds are beautiful because they’re beautiful to themselves.”

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Injections of Botox into the penis probably are the most effective treatment for erectile dysfunction. Every artery and vein in the body is surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle. Otherwise there could not be variations in blood pressure. When the muscles around blood vessels contract, this is called vadoconstriction. When the muscles around blood vessels relax, this is called vasodilation.

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